One of the first acts of the town's newly appointed Paving Commissioners in was to appoint a committee to report on the condition of the town's streets. Between and the Local Board of Health continued the official supervision of streets, laid out several new roads, and started numbering the houses for identification and postal purposes. Living conditions had improved greatly in Victorian times with the removal of several poorly built cottages that were deemed to be only ' hovels ' and a reduction in childhood ill health in the early 19th century.
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Many cottages in the district of 'Waterloo', which apparently lay just east of Banbury Bridge to the north of the road, had been transformed after the early 19th century so that by 'Waterloo' was considered one of the better off parts of Grimsbury. Banbury was booming, and Grimsbury's principal expansion occurred between and , when some houses were built, around Middleton Road, Causeway, Merton Street, Duke Street, and North Street.
Banbury's Freehold land Societies came into existence in the s as part of a new pro-Democracy political movement inspired, organised by Liberal Radicals to effect Parliamentary Reform. Liberalised Banbury's offshoot was a settlement in New Grimsbury. The hamlet was originally called Freetown in the s. Mr Taylor was a disciple of the Unitarian minister George Dawson, and thus became a vigorous crusader for the working-classes.
The first two railways to reach Banbury opened in Upper and Lower Cherwell Streets and Windsor Street had also been built before as the town first began to grow. Neithrop expanded further between and , with new housing providing for the Municipal Borough of Banbury 's planned slum clearance from 'Waterloo' in Grimsbury and to deal with the then growing population and for the expanding population.
A Quaker Pastor was one of the leading figures in Banbury and set up its first two water treatment works in the s. In the early s the east side of Regents Place was developed by a William Wilkins between and Duke Street, was located at the edge of Wilkins' now demolished brick pit , was developed around South of the Causeway, the newly designated Merton Street was developed by various speculators between the years of and It is worth noting the cramped development of the housing on the Causeway and Merton Street known locally as the 'Railway Terraces' that built by the Great Western Railway, for the company's workers to use on payment of a rent to the GWR.
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This can be compared with the then contemporary, but more generous, development of the freehold land estate with its forward looking ' build-to-own ' policy and public ethos. Development of site in the area continued into the twentieth century, Avenue Road constructed in being a case in point. Allotments began to encroached on the mostly closed clay pit by Banbury town council also built the houses in King's Road and on the Easington estate at that time.
More houses were built for the working population at the south end of Britannia Road and the area to the east between and , and also in both Old Grimsbury Road and Gibbs Road in Grimsbury, and more up-market houses were built in both the Marlborough Road area and in Bath Road, Kings Road, Park Road, and Queen Street in Neithrop. In the local medical officer for Banbury found that 62 cottages were dangerously filthy, 63 had defective drains, and 21 no water supply.
The land that was Peoples' Park had been enclosed in Hanoverian times and was set up as a private park in and opened in , along with the adjacent bowling green. The mostly late 19th-century suburb of Grimsbury witnessed rapid growth between and In many people were living in houses unfit for human habitation. The Municipal Borough of Banbury set up a housing committee which some houses were built in Kings Road. The Housing Act was followed by the building of the Easington housing estate of council houses in what was one of the first slum clearance schemes in the country. By the town's medical officer reported houses still unfit for habitation.
So in Banbury council opened the Ruscote housing estate of houses. The heavily increased population between and was accommodated by the expansion of the town in three main areas, in each of which houses were built both by the town corporation and by private housing companies. Between the Oxford and Bloxham roads about houses were built before to form the bulk of the suburb of Easington, and in the area of the older village and suburb of Neithrop some houses were built before both around the earlier houses and further west in new streets on either side of the Warwick Road, a development which was extended to the south-west after Broughton Road and the West Bar area were mostly built in , with a few building like the Gothic Villa dating from and the neighbouring West Bar Surgery GP's practice dating from the early s.
The housing developments were mainly in the western parts of the town between the Warwick and Broughton roads, with others being built on the site of the former brickworks in Grimsbury.
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To the north of Grimsbury Square is the —55 area of 'New Grimsbury' and south of it is the and earlier old town of 'Old Grimsbury'. A then confidential memorandum was sent to Horace Lester on May 18, , by Captain Snowball with idea that the factory could be used for another manufacturing purpose after the war,  like the motor depot at Slough Trading Estate had been listed for.
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Some Luftwaffe bombs dropped behind the Bowling Green in the s since they feared it had been reactivated. The Northern Aluminium Company ALCAN sheet rolling factory That had been was built to the north of Banbury in expanded again in the mid 30s to meet increased demand from the aircraft industry. The town saw rapid expansion during the s and s as housing was built for newcomers from nearby towns and the emerging London overspill , and another 2, including Withycombe Drive in during the period from to as the population began to grow significantly.
The housing developments were mainly in the western parts of the town between the Warwick and Broughton roads, with others being built on the site of the former brickworks in Grimbury. In a total of 6, households were built, mostly in the style of those around Neithrop's Admiral Holland pub. The land south of the Foscote Private Hospital in Calthorpe, Oxfordshire and Easington farm were mostly open farmland until the early s as shown by the Ordnance Survey maps of , , and It had only a few farmsteads , the odd house, an allotment field-come-rugby pitch now under the Sainsbury's store , and the Municipal Borough of Banbury council's small reservoir just south Easington farm and a water spring lay to the south of it.
Two minor streams ran from a spring near the allotment gardens and the land under today's Timms estate. An old clay pit , kiln and brick works lay near the Poets' Corner estate. The pit was of mid Victorian origin and the buildings were put up by the issuing of the O. The pit had been filled in by the s, the buildings closed by the s and the site was built on by the late s.
Bankside road was constructed from to in a north to south direction as the local street testifies to. The Woodgreen swimming pool was built in the early s and renovated in the late s.
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It was closed in the early s, heavily renovated in and reopened in The much frequented outdoor pool is closed from September to March due to the bad seasonal weather . The Ruscote estate, which now has a notable South Asian community, was expanded in the s because of the growth of the town due to the London overspill and further grew in the mids.
British Railways closed Merton Street station and the Buckingham to Banbury line to passenger traffic at the end of Merton Street freight depot continued to handle livestock traffic for Banbury's cattle market until , when this to was discontinued and the railway dismantled. British Railways closed this line too in Banbury's growth accelerated after the s with the completion of the M40 motorway which gave faster access to London and Birmingham. By the census the town's population was 26,, in it was 28, and by it had reached 41, for the town and 43, including the outlying villages such as Drayton.
In an estimate for the town went as far as 46, in total. Most of the Hardwick estate built in the s because of the growth of the town due to the Birmingham overspill and a slum clearance scheme in Smethwick.
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Some Welsh families have moved in since. It was expanded further in the mids. The main shopping facility is the now partly closed Hardwick arcade. Trinity Close was mostly built between and , while both New Grimsbury and Bretch Hill continued to grow in the s according to the O. Trinity Close and Powys Grove they were originally created as separate entities between the late s and early s as the , and Ordnance Survey maps help to illustrate. It may be noted that Bretch Hill Road may have remained a long cul-de-sac and not reached the main road if the long planned Banbury by-pass had gone ahead in the s.
The housing around Appleby Close was built in the s and might have been replaced by a proposed link between the by-pass and Bretch Hill, if the project had gone ahead. Banbury used to have Western Europe's largest cattle market ,  which was on Merton Street in Grimsbury. For many decades, cattle and other farm animals were driven there on the hoof from as far as Scotland to be sold to feed the growing population of London and other towns.
Since its closure in June a new housing development has been built on its site which includes Dashwood Primary School. The town was renovated in and partly pedestrianized in Bretch Hill 's Thornbury Drive was put up for sale in The Hanwell estate, which lies between Banbury and Hanwell , was built in between and , on the grounds of the former Hanwell Farm , which has become one of the constant houses, due to the natural growth of the town's commuter population.
There was a strong riot in the Market Place in , which was quickly brought under control by the police. There have been some concerns over antisocial behaviour and heavier than average litter levels in Princess Diana Park and Hillview Park, and also about fly-tipping in Banbury which affects some streets and footpaths such as on the Ironstones' paths.
Woodgreen's year-old   youth club was closed in April, , demolished during July ,   and its replacement is due to open in early There was a plan in the late s to expand the Bretch Hill estate westwards into local farmland,    but this has now been suspended due to the credit crunch and local hostility to the plan, including the southern expansion towards Bodicote. The Hanwell Fields Estate was built in the north during and Over the past few years there have been plans to build a new estate on the undeveloped College Fields adjoining both Bodicote and the Cherwell Heights housing estate of Banbury.
In February Cherwell District Council voted to approve the plans despite a 20, signature petition against it. About 1, houses will be built in the estate, which will include local shops, a public house, a church, a restaurant, a school and other local services. The area may now be redeveloped as a car park. The Domesday Book in listed 3 mills, with a total fiscal value of 45 shillings , on the Bishop of Lincoln 's demesne lands, and a fourth which was leased to Robert son of Waukelin by the Bishop. Among Banbury's four Medieval mills was probably a forerunner of Banbury Mill, first referred to by this name in The fore-runners of Butchers Row were probably long standing butchers' stalls which were known to be in situ by In , the woollen cloth draper , Robert Vivers, who was also lessee of the prebendal estate, owned the Banbury Mill.
Banbury's first major printer was John Cheney. He started out in as the innkeeper of the 'Unicorn' inn by next year he started selling paper as a side-line he had is known to have set up as a jobbing-printer by In the 18th century New Bank and later called the Gillett Bank  had also been Richard Tawney, who was the owner of a major brewery at Oxford. The coming of the railway enhanced Banbury's position as a market town , local economic epicentre and regional centre. This was the main factor behind the expansion of the New Bank under Joseph Ashby Gillett and his successors.
In the early 19th century the most successful brewery in Banbury was the one owned by Thomas Hunt's , opened in Bridge Street just before A blacking factory was also opened by and it had five employees in , but closed around The Canalside area began to develop became a centre of Banbury's agricultural, transport, and electrical engineering industry at about the same time as the arrival of the railways in Until the midth century Banbury's trade and industry were based mostly on the products of agriculture and stock raising, with a modest volume of weaving, milling, baking, brewing and boat building.
The agricultural implements and milling equipment works at the Vulcan Foundry , was begun in by the firm of Lampitt and Co. Both Charles Lampitt produced a mobile steam-engine in , and John Lampitt invented systems of 2-speed gearing and 3-speed gearing for traction engines. Among the various products of the works were portable and fixed industrial steam engines and a major industrial steam engine which supplied the power for the Hunt Edmunds Brewery for 90 years. At the Great Exhibition of exhibits by firms and individuals from Banbury included the following items and displays:.