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The war is named after Red Cloud , a prominent Sioux chief who led the war against the United States following encroachment into the area by the U. The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Sioux victory in the war led to their temporarily preserving their control of the Powder River country. The cause of the war was the desire of the U.

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Gold had been discovered in the Black Hills, settlers began to encroach onto Native American lands, and the Sioux and Cheyenne refused to cede ownership to the U. Traditionally, the United States military and historians place the Lakota at the center of the story, especially given their numbers, but some Indians believe the Cheyenne were the primary target of the U. Among the many battles and skirmishes of the war was the Battle of the Little Bighorn , often known as Custer's Last Stand, the most storied of the many encounters between the U.

The battle, which resulted in the defeat of US forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of Five of the 7th Cavalry's twelve companies were annihilated and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew and a brother-in-law. The total US casualty count included dead and 55 severely wounded six died later from their wounds , [42] including four Crow Indian scouts and at least two Arikara Indian scouts. That Indian victory notwithstanding, the U. Grant and Rutherford B. It was described as a " massacre " by General Nelson A.

Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. On December 29, , five hundred troops of the 7th Cavalry Regiment , supported by four Hotchkiss guns a lightweight artillery piece capable of rapid fire , surrounded an encampment of the Lakota bands of the Miniconjou and Hunkpapa [44] with orders to escort them to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska.

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By the time it was over, 25 troopers and more than Lakota Sioux lay dead, including men, women, and children. It remains unknown which side was responsible for the first shot; some of the soldiers are believed to have been the victims of " friendly fire " because the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions.

The occupiers controlled the town for 71 days while various state and federal law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Marshals Service laid siege. Two members of A.

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The Lakota Freedom Delegation, a group of controversial Native American activists, declared on December 19, the Lakota were withdrawing from all treaties signed with the United States to regain sovereignty over their nation. One of the activists, Russell Means , claimed that the action is legal and cites natural , international and US law.

Throughout the decades, thousands of Native American children were forcibly removed from their homes and sent to boarding schools with a primary objective of assimilating Native American children and youth into Euro-American culture, while at the same time providing a basic education in Euro-American subject matters. Many children lost knowledge of their culture and languages, as well as faced physical and sexual abuse at these schools.

In , the government tried to put an end to these boarding schools and placement into foster families with the Indian Child Welfare Act ICWA , which says except in the rarest circumstances, Native American children must be placed with their relatives or tribes. It also says states must do everything it can to keep native families together. In South Dakota, Native American children make up less than 15 percent of the child population, yet they make up more than half of the children in foster care. Lakota activists Madonna Thunder Hawk and Chase Iron Eyes worked with the Lakota People's Law Project as they sought to end what they claimed were unlawful seizures of Native American Lakota children in South Dakota, and stop the state practice of placing these children in non-Native homes.

In the summer of , Sioux Indians and the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe began a protest against construction of the Dakota Access oil pipeline , also known as the Bakken pipeline, which, if completed, is designed to carry hydrofracked crude oil from the Bakken oil fields of North Dakota to the oil storage and transfer hub of Patoka, Illinois. The conflict sparked a nationwide debate and much news media coverage.

Thousands of indigenous and non-indigenous supporters joined the protest, and several camp sites were set up south of the construction zone. The protest was peaceful, and alcohol, drugs and firearms were not allowed at the campsite or the protest site. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ethnic group. For other uses, see Sioux disambiguation. Sitting Bull , a Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy man , c.

Sioux language , Lakota language , and Dakota language. North American fur trade. Dakota War of Great Sioux War of Dakota Access Pipeline protests. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 9 September The Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography. The Ojibwe People's Dictionary. University of Minnesota Board of Regents. Retrieved 29 August Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre. Nebraska Indian Community College. Retrieved 22 November Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton.

Archived from the original on Life and Customs of a Warrior Society. University of Oklahoma Press. Native America in the Twentieth Century; an Encyclopedia. New York and London: Dictionary of Native American Mythology. A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians.


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Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Corporate Canada An Historical Outline. The Dakota and Lakota Nations.

Nebraska History , Vol. Norman and London, , pp. Among the Sioux of Dakota. Eighteen Months' Experience as an Indian Agent, In addition, the medium itself was small enough and light enough to mail using general first class postage. Almost overnight, this created a new business opportunity and model for business innovators to re-invent the home entertainment distribution model. It also gave companies an inexpensive way to provide business and product information on full motion video through direct mail. Immediately following the formal adoption of a unified standard for DVD, two of the four leading video game console companies Sega and The 3DO Company said they already had plans to design a gaming console with DVDs as the source medium.

Contemporary games for Windows were also distributed on DVD. Some specifications for mechanical, physical and optical characteristics of DVD optical discs can be downloaded as freely available standards from the ISO website. Some DVD specifications e. HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for backup and transport. Three formats were developed: Most DVD readers and players play both kinds of discs, though older models can have trouble with the "plus" variants.

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The MID contains data such as the manufacturer and model, byte capacity, allowed data rates also known as speed , etc.. When played, a slight transition can sometimes be seen in the playback when the player changes layers. A dual-layer disc differs from its single layered counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with dual-layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semitransparent layer.


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In some DVD players, the layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause, up to several seconds. The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media. Track 1 then starts at the outside diameter. DVD video discs are mastered slightly differently. The video is divided between the layers such that layer 1 can be made to start at the same diameter that layer 0 finishes. This speeds up the transition as the layer changes because although the laser does have to refocus on layer 1, it does not have to skip across the disc to find it.

In draft versions of the specification, DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes, but some parameters were changed later on as explained above, so the capacity decreased. These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD , respectively. Each DVD sector contains 2, bytes of data, 2, bytes of which are user data.

All three common optical disc media Compact disc , DVD, and Blu-ray use light from laser diodes , for its spectral purity and ability to be focused precisely. This shorter wavelength allows a smaller pit on the media surface compared to CDs 0. DVD-Video became the dominant form of home video distribution in Japan when it first went on sale in , but it shared the market for home video distribution in the United States until June 15, , when weekly DVD-Video in the United States rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals.

CSS utilizes a proprietary bit stream cipher algorithm. The system was introduced around and was first compromised in The rise of filesharing has prompted many copyright holders to display notices on DVD packaging or displayed on screen when the content is played that warn consumers of the illegality of certain uses of the DVD. It is commonplace to include a second advertisement warning that most forms of copying the contents are illegal. Many DVDs prevent skipping past or fast-forwarding through this warning. Arrangements for renting and lending differ by geography. In Europe, rental and lending rights are more limited, under a European Directive that gives copyright holders broader powers to restrict the commercial renting and public lending of DVD copies of their work.

It offers many channel configuration options from mono to 5. Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music with respect to total running time and quantity of songs or far higher audio quality reflected by higher sampling rates , greater sample resolution and additional channels for spatial sound reproduction.